Plasmacytoid dendritic cells

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells phenotypically and functionally differ from conventional dendritic cells. They resemble morphologically to the plasma cells, and their main function is to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and react by massive secretion of type I interferons (mainly IFN-α and IFN-β), type III interferons (IFN-λ, IL-28/IL-29), TNF-α, and chemokines, which results in strong inflammatory conditions. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells support T cell survival and their effector functions, B cell differentiation, conventional dendritic cell activation, and they themselves can  also perform cytotoxicity against target cells. On the other hand, under certain conditions plasmacytoid dendritic cells can play tolerogenic roles by induction of regulatory T cells and down-regulation of functions and proliferation of proinflammatory T cells, which makes them a promising therapeutic target. Importantly, plasmacytoid dendritic cells can turn into immunosuppresive also by infiltration into tumors, which contributes to the tumorigenesis.
CD303 is a specific marker of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. This approximately 38 kDa type II transmembrane glycoprotein with an extracellular C-type lectin domain plays roles in capturing of pathogen-related oligosaccharide-containing antigens by them, and in their presentation to T cells. CD303 also mediates a potent inhibition of interferon alpha/beta production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, thus it represents a potential target for lupus erythematosus therapy.
CD135 is expressed both by plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells. These cells are strictly dependent on its ligand FLT3L. CD135 is also expressed on hematopoietic progenitor cells.
CD123 supports terminal differentiation, maturation, and maintenance of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. It is expressed also on hematopoietic progenitor cells and in various hematological malignancies, but not on conventional dendritic cells.

Fig. 1: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells detected in human peripheral blood (surface staining) using anti-human CD303 (15E3) PE antibody (10 μl reagent / 100 μl of peripheral whole blood).
The mouse monoclonal antibody 15E3 recognizes human CD303 in flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and ELISA application.
Currently available formats:
purified                          11-943-C100
PE                                   1P-943-T100
APC                                1A-943-T100
PE-Cy™7                        T7-943-T100
Coming soon:
Alexa Fluor® 488            A4-943-T100
The mouse monoclonal antibody BV10A4 recognizes human CD135 in flow cytometry, and immunoprecipitation application.
Currently available formats:
purified                          11-587-C100
FITC                               1F-587-T100
PE                                   1P-587-T100
APC                                1A-587-T100
The mouse monoclonal antibody 6H6 recognizes human CD123 in flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry application.
Currently available formats:
purified                            11-700-C100
biotin                                1B-700-C100
Pacific Blue™                   PB-700-T100
FITC                                   1F-700-T100
PE                                      1P-700-T100
APC                                   1A-700-T100
PE-Cy™5                           T8-700-T100
Alexa Fluor® 647             A6-700-T100
PerCP                                PC-700-T100
PerCP-Cy™5.5                 T9-700-T100
Alexa Fluor® 700             A7-700-T100
PE-Cy™7                           T7-700-T100
Fig. 2: Separation of REH cells stained using anti-human CD135 (BV10A4) APC antibody (10 μl reagent per million cells in 100 μl of cell suspension, red-filled) from REH cells stained using mouse IgG1 isotype control (MOPC-21) APC antibody (concentration in sample 5 μg/ml, same as CD135 APC concentration, black-dashed) in flow cytometry analysis (surface staining).

Fig. 3: Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral blood with anti-CD123 (6H6) biotin.
Further reading:
Chistiakov DA, Orekhov AN, Sobenin IA, Bobryshev YV: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: Development, functions, and role in atherosclerotic inflammation. Front Physiol. 2014, 5:279.
Reizis B: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: Development, regulation, and function. Immunity 2019, 50:37-49.
Musumeci A, Lutz K, Winheim E, Krug AB: What makes a pDC: Recent advances in understanding plasmacytoid DC development and heterogeneity. Front Immunol. 2019, 10:1222.
Ye Y, Gaugler B, Mohty M, Malard F: Plasmacytoid dendritic cell biology and its role in immune-mediated diseases. Clin Transl Immunology 2020, 9:e1139.
Zhou B, Lawrence T, Liang Y: The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in cancers. Front Immunol. 2021, 12:749190.