Phagocytosis, the process where specialised cells of the immune system kill and decompose microorganisms (e.g. extracellular bacteria), is fundamental to innate non-specific human immunity. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophilic granulocytes), macrophages and dendritic cells are the effector cells in the process of phagocytosis.
Phagocytosis is preceded by chemotactic migration of the phagocytes (mainly neutrophilic granulocytes) into the site of inflammation. Then the foreign particles are recognized, ingested (forming phagosome and phagolysosome), and finally destructed by oxygen-independent and oxygen-dependent mechanisms. The latter ones (the “oxidative burst”) involve a release of reactive oxygen radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorite. In this process the key enzymes are the NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase, whose malfunction leads to impaired bactericidal mechanisms. PHAGO
The FagoFlowEx Kit is intended for examination of phagocytic activity of neutrophil granulocytes by measuring the respiratory (oxidative) burst after their stimulation with E. coli bacteria in human heparinized whole blood using flow cytometry.
Histogram 1 - overlay: Healthy donor without defect of respiratory burst, (SI = 98)
Histogram 2 - overlay: Patient with MPO deficiency, (SI = 11)
Histogram 3 - overlay: Male patient with CGD, (SI = 16)
Histogram 4 - overlay: Female carrying X-linked mutation of the NADPH oxidase gene.
Two granulocyte subpopulations differ in respiratory burst intensity, (SIlow = 13.9, SIhigh = 125).
IngoFlowEx Kit is designed for quantification of phagocytic activity of human granulocytes and monocytes by measuring the ingestion of fluorescently labeled E. coli bacteria in human heparinized whole blood using flow cytometry.
Gates for granulocytes and monocytes (left) and overlay of histograms of granulocyte and monocyte subpopulation (right).
CD123 is an important leukemic marker and a target for immunotherapy.
Today we introduce three mouse monoclonal antibody clones, that have been added to our portfolio: anti-human CD367 (clone 9E8), anti-human PPM1D (clone 7E11/C5), and anti-human LOX1 (clone 15C4).
CD206 glycoprotein represents a multifunctional member of the innate immune system, as well as a diagnostic marker, and an immunotherapy target.