Phagocytosis, the process where specialised cells of the immune system kill and decompose microorganisms (e.g. extracellular bacteria), is fundamental to innate non-specific human immunity. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophilic granulocytes), macrophages and dendritic cells are the effector cells in the process of phagocytosis.
Phagocytosis is preceded by chemotactic migration of the phagocytes (mainly neutrophilic granulocytes) into the site of inflammation. Then the foreign particles are recognized, ingested (forming phagosome and phagolysosome), and finally destructed by oxygen-independent and oxygen-dependent mechanisms. The latter ones (the “oxidative burst”) involve a release of reactive oxygen radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorite. In this process the key enzymes are the NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase, whose malfunction leads to impaired bactericidal mechanisms. PHAGO
The FagoFlowEx Kit is intended for examination of phagocytic activity of neutrophil granulocytes by measuring the respiratory (oxidative) burst after their stimulation with E. coli bacteria in human heparinized whole blood using flow cytometry.
Histogram 1 - overlay: Healthy donor without defect of respiratory burst, (SI = 98)
Histogram 2 - overlay: Patient with MPO deficiency, (SI = 11)
Histogram 3 - overlay: Male patient with CGD, (SI = 16)
Histogram 4 - overlay: Female carrying X-linked mutation of the NADPH oxidase gene.
Two granulocyte subpopulations differ in respiratory burst intensity, (SIlow = 13.9, SIhigh = 125).
IngoFlowEx Kit is designed for quantification of phagocytic activity of human granulocytes and monocytes by measuring the ingestion of fluorescently labeled E. coli bacteria in human heparinized whole blood using flow cytometry.
Gates for granulocytes and monocytes (left) and overlay of histograms of granulocyte and monocyte subpopulation (right).
Dendritic cells represent a cornerstone of innate and adaptive immunity. We present here our antibodies to human dendritic cell markers, and a lineage cocktail for better gating of some dentritic cell types.
Exosomes have recently become a very popular topic. We present here our antibodies to exosomal markers.