Cytokeratins – markers in tumor diagnostics

Cytokeratins (CKs), the largest family of intermediate filament proteins, are expressed in epithelial and epithelia-derived cells. Unique combinations of type I (acidic, CK9-CK23) and type II (basic, CK1-CK8) cytokeratins serve as specific markers that distinguish different epithelial cell types. Determination of cytokeratine content has also become an important tool in classification of tumor cells. The patterns of cytokeratins of a given type of carcinoma appear to be identical in primary tumors and metastases, independent from the specific location and size.

Detection of CK5 can be used for distinction between mesotheliomas and most adenocarcinomas. Certain defects in CK5 lead to inherited skin disorders such as EBS (epidermolysis bul¬losa simplex) or DDD (Dowling-Deogs disease). CK7 can serve e.g. as a marker to distinguish between ovarian and gastrointestinal carcinomas, or between transitional cell carcinomas and prostate cancer. Aberrant expression of CK7 in hepatocytes is a marker primary biliary cirrhosis. CK8 and CK18 are hallmark of simple epithelia. Despite structural role, they have signaling function in modulation of cell attachment, protein synthesis and G1/S phase transition and are involved in stress adaptation. CK18 is also used as a serum biomarker for monitoring therapy-induced tumour apoptosis and necrosis. Detection of CK10, CK13 and CK17 can be used in squamous cell carcinoma diagnostics. Monitoring of CK19 expression is important for prognosis of various tumours. The expression of CK19 may be linked to retention of undifferentiated cell character.
  
CK.jpg

Fig.1: Heterodimers of acidic type I (blue) and basic type II (green) cytokeratins form fibrous structures.
   
 

Expression of cytokeratins in selected human carcinoma types: 

  
 

   Carcinoma

   Cytokeratins

Hepatocellular carcinoma

8, 18

Adenocarcinoma of colon, type 1

8, 18, 19

Adenocarcinoma of colon, type 2

8, (17), 18, 19

Adenocarcinoma of stomach

(7), 8, 18, 19

Adenocarcinoma of esophagus

8, 18, 19

Adenocarcinoma of pancreas

7, 8, (17), 18, 19

Ductal (adeno-) carcinoma of breast, type 1

(7), 8, 18, 19

Basal cell epithelioma

5, (6), (8), 14, (15), 17

Squamous cell carcinoma of skin

5, 6, (11), 14, 16, (17)

Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue

5, 6, 14, 16, 17

Ductal carcinoma of breast, type 2

6, 7, 8, (11), (14), (16), (17), 18, 19

Undifferentiated carcinoma of bronchus (large-cell type)

6, 7, 8, 17, 18, 19

Solid carcinoma of maxillary sinus

5, 8, 17, (18), 19

Adamantinoma

4, 5, 8, 14, (15), 16, 17, 19

Squamous cell carcinoma of epiglottis

4, 5, 6, (8), 14, (15), (16), 17, (18), 19

Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

(4), 5, (8), 14, (15), (16), 17, 19

Squamous cell carcinoma of rectal-anal region

(4), 5, 6, (8), (10), (11), 14, (15), 16, 17, (18), 19

Cloacogenic carcinoma

1, 5, (6), 7, 8, (10), (11), 13, (14), 15, 17, 19






   
 


   
   

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Anti-cytokeratin antibodies in our portfolio:

     

   Catalog No.:

   Product name

   Clone

   Application

11-108-C100

Anti-Cytokeratins Purified

C-11

WB, FC, IP, IHC(P), ICC

1B-108-C100

Anti-Cytokeratins Biotin

C-11

WB, FC, IP, IHC(P), ICC

1F-108-C100

Anti-Cytokeratins FITC

C-11

FC

A4-108-C100

Anti-Cytokeratins Alexa Fluor® 488

C-11

FC, WB, ICC

1P-108-C100

Anti-Cytokeratins PE

C-11

FC

1A-108-C100

Anti-Cytokeratins APC

C-11

FC

11-768-C100

Anti-Acidic Cytokeratins Purified

AE1

FC, WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC

1P-768-C100

Anti-Acidic Cytokeratins PE

AE1

FC

11-769-C100

Anti-Basic Cytokeratins Purified

AE3

WB, IHC(F), IHC(P)

11-101-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 5/18 Purified

C-50

IHC(P), IP, WB, ICC

11-109-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 7/17 Purified

C-46

IP, WB, IHC(P), ICC

11-105-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 8 Purified

C-43

IP, WB, IHC(P), ICC

1F-105-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 8 FITC

C-43

FC

11-104-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 8 Purified

C-51

IHC(P), IP, WB, ICC

11-111-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 10 Purified

VIK-10

IHC(P), IP, ICC

11-478-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 10/13 Purified

DE-K13

WB, IHC(P), IHC(F)

11-106-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 18 Purified

C-04

IHC(P), FC, IP, WB, ICC, ELISA

1B-106-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 18 Biotin

C-04

IHC(P), FC, IP, WB, ICC, ELISA

1F-106-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 18 FITC

C-04

FC

A4-106-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 18 Alexa Fluor® 488

C-04

FC, WB, ICC

11-110-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 18 Purified

DA-7

IP, WB, IHC(P), ICC, ELISA

1B-110-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 18 Biotin

DA-7

IP, WB, IHC(P), ICC, ELISA

11-107-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 18 Purified

DC-10

IP, WB, IHC(P), ICC, ELISA, FC

1B-107-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 18 Biotin

DC-10

IP, WB, IHC(P), ICC, ELISA, FC

1F-107-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 18 FITC

DC-10

FC

11-120-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 19 Purified

A53-B/A2

IHC(P), FC, IP, WB, ICC, ELISA

1B-120-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 19 Biotin

A53-B/A2

IHC(P), FC, IP, WB, ICC, ELISA

1F-120-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 19 FITC

A53-B/A2

FC

A4-120-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 19 Alexa Fluor® 488

A53-B/A2

FC, WB, ICC

11-119-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 19 Purified

BA-17

WB, IHC(P), FC, IP, ICC

1B-119-C100

Anti-Cytokeratin 19 Biotin

BA-17

WB, IHC(P), FC, IP, ICC

    
  

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